die Rechenmittel - Translation into English - examples German | Reverso Context

Single or taken means

Translation of "erteilt" in English

Abstract Background Regression to the mean RTM occurs in situations of repeated measurements when extreme values are followed by measurements in the same subjects that are closer to the mean of the basic population. In uncontrolled studies such changes are likely to be interpreted as a real treatment effect.

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Conclusion Our method can be used to separate the wheat from the chaff in situations, when one has to interpret the results of uncontrolled studies. In meta-analysis, health-technology reports or systematic reviews this approach may be helpful to clarify the evidence given from uncontrolled observational studies.

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Background Regression to the mean RTM first described by Galton [ 1 ] is a statistical phenomenon broadly discussed when it comes to measure changes in the course of time. It occurs in situations of repeated measurements when extremely large or small values are followed by measurements in the same subjects that on average are closer to the mean of the basic population.

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Such changes are likely to be interpreted as a real drift, although they just might be artificial coming from the fact that the sampling of values was not random but selected.

RTM affects all fields of life science, when effects of an intervention have to be evaluated in an uncontrolled longitudinal setting.

  1. die Rechenmittel - Translation into English - examples German | Reverso Context
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Medical rehabilitation programmes for example, often are evaluated for their ability single or taken means restore the patient's ability to work. Unaware of RTM effects a patient's recovery typically is interpreted as a treatment effect [ 2 ].

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Other examples include the evaluation of asthma disease management programmes [ 3 ] or cholesterol screening [ 4 ]. The discussion about the development of methods to detect RTM in observational studies is still vital [ 5 ].

single or taken means

This is especially true for the results of complementary therapies, which are often claimed to be a mixture of RTM effects, non-specific placebo effects, the effects of a previous or concomitant conventional treatment and the actual effectiveness of the complementary treatment [ 67 ]. In the last two decades several methods for detecting RTM have been developed both for the case of normal distributed data [ 89 ] as well as for the non-parametric case [ 1011 ].

Most of these methods deal with common situations of truncated sampling, i.

single or taken means

The approach we focus on in this paper is a straightforward method developed by Mee and Chua [ 12 ] based on classical t-test statistics and a linear regression model. However, single or taken means basic necessity of a population mean is quite obstructive and often such a value can not be determined.

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In this paper, we therefore revisit the approach of Mee and Chua and extend it to a situation where no population mean is available single or taken means evidence for or against a treatment effect is needed when RTM is present. Notations In the following we consider two measurements of one quality e. Realisations of Y1 and Y2 are denoted as y1 and y2. In the case of no change in distributions between the two repeated measurements i.

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In both cases Y2 is expected closer than Y1 to the mean.